I didn’t get much from Duolingo. It was ok for basic vocabulary and not much else.
The thing that helped my Spanish the most was reading out loud, first kid’s books and then young adult books, during my online video lessons at iTalki with my talented and affordable Spanish teacher.
If I were learning another language from scratch, I would find songs I like, look up the lyrics, and read (or sing) them out loud.
Reading out loud, especially in a language with consistent pronunciation like Spanish, builds vocabulary, comprehension, and conversational fluency all at the same time.
Thanks for the nice article Matt Lillywhite !!!